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Garson, G. D. (2016). Survey Research & Sampling, 2016 Edition. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishers.

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ISBN13: 978-1-62638-040-0
ASIN: B0080M029Y
@c 2016 by G. David Garson and Statistical Associates Publishers. worldwide rights reserved in all languages and on all media. Permission is not granted to copy, distribute, or post e-books or passwords.



An introductory graduate-level introduction and tutorial to survey research and sampling in social science and in general research.

Why we think it's important: As we move more and more toward web surveys, it is helpful to read some of the latest research on what works and what doesn't.

New in the 2016 edition:

The full content is now available from Statistical Associates Publishers. Click here.

Below is the unformatted table of contents.

Overview	7
Key Terms and Concepts	7
Survey research terms	7
Survey Instrumentation.	7
Research design	8
Samples vs. enumerations	10
Survey model	11
Response rate	12
Cover letters	15
Prenotification	16
Cash incentives	17
Voucher incentives	18
Donation incentives	19
Lotteries	19
Response structure	20
Survey error	23
Pretesting	24
Survey language	25
Split sample comparisons	26
Analysis of non-response	27
Data collection modes	27
Face-to-face interviewing	27
Mail surveys	27
Email Surveys	28
Telephone interviewing and random digit dialing	28
Web surveys	29
Web surveys on mobile devices	31
Computer-based questionnaires	31
Device mode effects	32
Survey software	32
Survey design considerations	40
Survey ethics	40
Survey anonymity	40
Survey order	41
Identification codes	42
Survey layout and format	43
Survey length	45
Items per page	46
Pages per survey	46
Branching and piping	46
Survey experiments	47
Gamified surveys	49
Survey items	50
Item development and selection	50
Item length	51
Demographic and basic information items	52
Model items	53
Control items	53
Filter items	54
Screening items	54
Cross-check items	54
Probe items	54
Framing and priming items	55
Scale items	56
Sociometric items	64
Open-ended items	64
Projective items	64
Vignettes	65
Item bias	66
Agreement bias	66
Ambiguity bias	66
Cheating bias	67
Complexity bias	67
Gender bias	68
Grammatical bias	69
Hypothetical item bias	69
Inappropriate assumptions bias	69
Item non-response bias	70
Language bias	70
Mutual exclusivity bias	70
Leading question bias	70
Loaded term bias	71
"Don't know" and non-exhaustive response set bias	71
Recall item bias	72
Residual category bias	72
Rank list bias	73
Requiring inaccessible information bias	73
Social desirability bias	73
Unfamiliar terms/jargon bias	74
Research on web surveys	74
Overview	74
Response rates	74
Non-internet households	77
Greater error and non-response in web surveys	80
Mode effects	80
Coverage bias	83
Age bias	83
Sensitive items	83
Radio buttons are better than drop-down pick lists	83
Use of grid items	84
Survey research assumptions: Attitude vs. action	84
Survey research frequently asked questions	85
What are the pros and cons of using open-ended items?	85
Is it okay to force a choice, or is a 'no opinion' option necessary?	85
How do I handle multiple-response items?	86
How can I get a more valid response to highly sensitive questions?	88
How do I handle the fact that not all respondents answer all items in my questionnaire?	88
What us photo elicitation?	89
Where can I find more information about web survey methodology?	90
Overview	90
Key Concepts and Terms	91
Population	91
Random sampling	91
The sampling frame	91
Strata	92
Panel construction	92
Recruitment cohorts	93
Significance	94
Confidence intervals	94
Enumerations	94
The design effect	95
Types of non-random sampling	95
Overview	95
Convenience sampling	96
Paid respondents	96
Quota sampling	97
Expert sampling	98
Types of random sampling	98
Simple random sampling	98
Simple random sampling with replacement	99
Simple random sampling without replacement	99
Equal probability systematic sampling	99
Repeated systematic sampling	100
Stratified simple random sampling	100
Multistage stratified random sampling	100
Simple vs. multistage sampling	101
Disproportionate stratified sampling (oversampling)	102
Clustering and multilevel effects in multistage samples	103
Random digit dialing (RDD)	104
Address-based sampling (ABS)	105
Probability-based online panels	108
Experience sampling	110
Dealing with sampling problems	110
Sampling within households	110
Response quality	112
Increasing the response rate	113
Analyzing non-response	115
Population comparison	115
Intensive postsampling	115
Wave extrapolation	116
Imputing responses	116
Weighting	117
Propensity score weighting	119
Sample matching	120
Repeated surveys in panel studies	121
Dealing with missing data	123
Pre-survey estimation of sample size	123
Sampling assumptions	123
Significance testing is only appropriate for random samples	123
Sampling frequently asked questions	124
How can one estimate sample size in advance?	124
How do I know if the distribution of my responses is what it should be, based on known population distributions?	125
What is adaptive sampling?	126
How is standard error computed for dichotomous responses?	126
Complex samples - how to adjust statistics for	126
What is resampling?	128
Bibliography	130
Appendix 1: Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES)	162
Pagecount:	171