SCALES AND MEASURES
A graduate level introduction to and illustrated tutorial on scales and measurement, using SPSS, SAS, Stata, WINSTEPS, and jMETRIC.
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Below is the unformatted table of contents.
SCALES AND MEASURES Measurement 7 Levels of Measurement 7 Nominal data 7 Ordinal data 7 Interval data 8 Latent variables 9 Constructs 9 Latent variables 9 Data Levels and measures of central tendency 10 Scaling 11 Overview 11 Constructs vs. categories and benchmarks 11 Data-gathering techniques 12 Types of techniques 12 Likert survey items 13 Ranking scales 13 Social distance scales 13 Paired comparisons 13 Q-Sorts 14 Fixed resources allocations 14 Other methods 14 Steps in scale development 14 Methods of combining items in a scale 17 Overview 17 Indexes 17 Ordinal scales 18 Ordered scales 18 Composite scores 20 Factors and latent variables 20 Multidimensional scales 20 Tau Equivalence 21 Congeneric v. tau-equivalent v. parallel indicators 21 Tau-equivalence in SEM 21 Likert items and Likert scales 21 Overview 21 Data level of Likert scales 22 Index of discriminative power (DP) 22 Guttman scales 23 Overview 23 Scale error in Guttman scaling 23 Goodness of fit measures for Guttman scales 25 Chi-square significance of Guttman scales 26 Proximity scales 27 Overview 27 Example 27 Proximity scales vs. Guttman scales 28 Mokken scales 28 Overview 28 Loevinger's H 29 Measures of Internal Consistency 30 Overview 30 Cronbach's alpha 30 Ordinal coefficient alpha and ordinal coefficient theta 33 Factor analysis 36 Rasch scales 37 Other internal consistency measures 37 Measures of agreement 38 Overview 38 Cohen's kappa 38 Measures of Reliability 39 Measures of item discrimination 39 Biserial correlation 39 Point-biserial correlation 40 Item Analysis 40 Overview 40 Software 42 Item analysis output 43 Rasch models 47 Overview 47 Software 47 Anchoring 48 Rasch analysis output 48 Assumptions 61 Unidimensionality 61 Equality of means and standard deviations 61 Frequently asked questions 62 Is it acceptable to use ordinal variables such as Likert items in interval-level procedures like regression or path analysis which assume interval data? 62 Is it acceptable to use dichotomous variables in procedures like regression or path analysis which assume interval data? 64 What is attenuation of effect size/correlation? 64 I have categorical data but I want to do interval procedures like factor analysis and regression. What do I do? 66 When I have a mixture of categorical and interval independents, what procedure should I use? 67 Should I use existing items or create my own? 67 How can I find standard scales and instruments? 68 When constructing a set of scales used to form a component average, should I standardize or rescale? 68 Should I standardize my variables before testing for reliability of scale items with Cronbach's alpha? 69 I want to add item scores together to form a scale. How can I test if the items are additive? 69 How can I get my SPSS worksheet into Guttman scaling format? 70 What software programs compute Guttman scaling coefficients of scalability and reliability? 71 What is the 'cluster bloc technique'? 71 Selecting the criteria 71 Computing indices of agreement 71 Establishing non-arbitrary cutoff points 72 Forming the cluster block matrix 72 What are Thurstone equal-appearing interval scales? 72 Q-dispersion 73 Collections of scales 73 General 74 Business 75 Crime 75 Economic/Financial/Work 75 Education 76 Medical 76 Politics 76 Psychology 77 Public Administration/Organizations 79 Social and Sociology 80 Bibliography 82 Pagecount: 91