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Garson, G. D. (2013). Scales and Measures. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishers.

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Table of Contents
ISBN: 978-1-62638-012-7
ASIN number (e-book counterpart to ISBN): B00A2ZTHX4.
@c 2013 by G. David Garson and Statistical Associates Publishers. worldwide rights reserved in all languages and on all media. Permission is not granted to copy, distribute, or post e-books or passwords.



A graduate level introduction to and illustrated tutorial on scales and measurement, using SPSS, SAS, Stata, WINSTEPS, and jMETRIC.

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Below is the unformatted table of contents.

Measurement	7
Levels of Measurement	7
Nominal data	7
Ordinal data	7
Interval data	8
Latent variables	9
Constructs	9
Latent variables	9
Data Levels and measures of central tendency	10
Scaling	11
Overview	11
Constructs vs. categories and benchmarks	11
Data-gathering techniques	12
Types of techniques	12
Likert survey items	13
Ranking scales	13
Social distance scales	13
Paired comparisons	13
Q-Sorts	14
Fixed resources allocations	14
Other methods	14
Steps in scale development	14
Methods of combining items in a scale	17
Overview	17
Indexes	17
Ordinal scales	18
Ordered scales	18
Composite scores	20
Factors and latent variables	20
Multidimensional scales	20
Tau Equivalence	21
Congeneric v. tau-equivalent v. parallel indicators	21
Tau-equivalence in SEM	21
Likert items and Likert scales	21
Overview	21
Data level of Likert scales	22
Index of discriminative power (DP)	22
Guttman scales	23
Overview	23
Scale error in Guttman scaling	23
Goodness of fit measures for Guttman scales	25
Chi-square significance of Guttman scales	26
Proximity scales	27
Overview	27
Example	27
Proximity scales vs. Guttman scales	28
Mokken scales	28
Overview	28
Loevinger's H	29
Measures of Internal Consistency	30
Overview	30
Cronbach's alpha	30
Ordinal coefficient alpha and ordinal coefficient theta	33
Factor analysis	36
Rasch scales	37
Other internal consistency measures	37
Measures of agreement	38
Overview	38
Cohen's kappa	38
Measures of Reliability	39
Measures of item discrimination	39
Biserial correlation	39
Point-biserial correlation	40
Item Analysis	40
Overview	40
Software	42
Item analysis output	43
Rasch models	47
Overview	47
Software	47
Anchoring	48
Rasch analysis output	48
Assumptions	61
Unidimensionality	61
Equality of means and standard deviations	61
Frequently asked questions	62
Is it acceptable to use ordinal variables such as Likert items in interval-level procedures like regression or path analysis which assume interval data?	62
Is it acceptable to use dichotomous variables in procedures like regression or path analysis which assume interval data?	64
What is attenuation of effect size/correlation?	64
I have categorical data but I want to do interval procedures like factor analysis and regression. What do I do?	66
When I have a mixture of categorical and interval independents, what procedure should I use?	67
Should I use existing items or create my own?	67
How can I find standard scales and instruments?	68
When constructing a set of scales used to form a component average, should I standardize or rescale?	68
Should I standardize my variables before testing for reliability of scale items with Cronbach's alpha?	69
I want to add item scores together to form a scale. How can I test if the items are additive?	69
How can I get my SPSS worksheet into Guttman scaling format?	70
What software programs compute Guttman scaling coefficients of scalability and reliability?	71
What is the 'cluster bloc technique'?	71
Selecting the criteria	71
Computing indices of agreement	71
Establishing non-arbitrary cutoff points	72
Forming the cluster block matrix	72
What are Thurstone equal-appearing interval scales?	72
Q-dispersion	73
Collections of scales	73
General	74
Business	75
Crime	75
Economic/Financial/Work	75
Education	76
Medical	76
Politics	76
Psychology	77
Public Administration/Organizations	79
Social and Sociology	80
Bibliography	82
Pagecount: 91