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PARTIAL CORRELATION (2014 EDITION)

An illustrated tutorial and introduction to partial correlation using SPSS, SAS, or Stata. Suitable for introductory graduate-level study. Partial correlation is the correlation of two variables while controlling for a third or more other variables. The technique is commonly used in "causal" modeling of small models (3 - 5 variables).

The 2014 edition updates the 2012 edition in four ways.:

• New, revised discussion and graphical illustration of suppression effects.
• Now covers Stata as well as SPSS and SAS

The full content is now available from Statistical Associates Publishers. Click here.

```PARTIAL CORRELATION
Overview	5
Key Concepts and Terms	6
Control variables	6
Order of correlation	6
Effects	6
No effect	6
Explanation	7
Spurious correlation	7
Partial explanation	7
Suppression	8
Control variables with partial correlation and regression	11
Example data	11
Types of controls	12
Partial correlation method in SPSS	12
Partial correlation method in SAS	14
Partial correlation method in Stata	16
Residual method	18
Rate method	20
Regression method	24
Semi-partial (part) correlation	27
How it works	29
Why partial r is always larger than semi-partial r	30
Assumptions	30
Simple models	30
Recursivity	30
Linearity	31
Data level	31
Model specification	31
Low multicollinearity	31
Frequently Asked Questions	31
SPSS gives me a choice of one-tailed and two-tailed tests. Which do I want?	31
If partial correlation assumptions are met and measures are reliable and valid, does upholding a model through partial correlation analysis mean that the model is true?	32
Is there any rule which can express the relation of the partial correlation to the original bivariate correlation (ex., is it always lower)?	32
What do SAS partial correlation scatterplots look like?	32
How is partial correlation computed?	33
Why does SPSS tell me I have 0 cases and it cannot compute partial correlation?	34
Can I use partial correlation for analysis of larger models?	34
Is there a form of partial association for nominal and ordinal variables, analogous to partial r for interval variables?	34
From statistical output for regression, how may we derive the significance of a partial correlation coefficient like rYX1.X2X3??	36
Bibliography	37

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