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Garson, G. D. (2013). Crosstabulation. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishers.

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ISBN: 978-1-62638-006-6

@c 2013 by G. David Garson and Statistical Associates Publishers. worldwide rights reserved in all languages and on all media. Permission is not granted to copy, distribute, or post e-books or passwords.



A monograph, introduction, and illustrated tutorial on crosstabulation and frequency distributions in quantitative research using SPSS, SAS, or Stata.

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Below is the unformatted table of contents.

Overview	5
Example	6
Crosstabulation in SPSS	6
SPSS “Frequencies” setup	6
SPSS “Frequencies” output	10
The “Frequency Table”	10
The “Bar Chart”	11
SPSS “Crosstabs” setup	12
The “Crosstabs” interface	12
The “Exact” button	12
The “Statistics” button	14
The “Cells” button	15
The “Format” button	16
The “Bootstrap” button	16
SPSS “Crosstabs”output	18
The crosstabulation	18
The “Chi-Square Tests” table	18
The “Directional Measures” table	19
The “Symmetric Measures” table	22
The “Risk Estimate” table	23
Custom Tables in SPSS	24
Overview	24
SPSS interface	25
SPSS output for custom tables	29
Crosstabulation in SAS	31
Frequency tables in SAS	31
One-way tables with PROC FREQ	31
Crosstabulation in SAS	33
Two-way tables with PROC FREQ	33
Three-way tables and higher in SAS	38
Controlling variable and value labels in SAS tables	39
Custom tables in SAS	40
Crosstabulation in Stata	42
Frequency tables in Stata	42
Stata syntax	42
Stata output	43
Crosstabs in Stata	48
Two-way tables in Stata	48
Three- and four--way tables in Stata	53
Frequently asked questions	54
In crosstabs, should I ask for percentages by column, row, or total?	54
How can I get table-related output by entering my frequencies rather than all my raw data?	56
Bibliography	59
Acknowledgments	59
Pagecount: 60